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Tubes intended for whole blood analyses are not to be centrifuged and separated. All patient specimens must be place in biohazard bags for transport to the laboratory. Specimen Collection Tubes. Gold-top serum separator tube (SST) This tube contains a clot activator and serum gel separator – used for various
Tested urine samples from patients at different stages of current leptospirosis and thereafter to determine whether use of the PCR for detection of leptospires in urine can be a valuable alternative to culturing. The procedure of DNA extraction and subsequent PCR applied to 15 freshly voided urine samples proved to be twice as sensitive as culturing. Overall, we were able to detect leptospires in approximately 90% (26 of 29) of the urine samples. Urine and serum samples were obtained from seven patients, before the eighth day of illness. Although it is generally assumed that leptospiruria starts approximately in the second week of illness, we were able to detect leptospires in all of these early urine samples. In contrast, only two of seven corresponding serum samples gave positive PCR results, which suggests that PCR analysis of urine can be more successful for early diagnosis of leptospirosis than PCR analysis of serum. Urine samples from six patients who had been treated with antibiotics at the time of illness were positive by PCR, implying that the patients were still shedding leptospires in their urine despite treatment. Some of these samples were even taken years after the infection, indicating that shedding of leptospires in urine may last much longer than is generally assumed. We conclude that detection of leptospires in urine with PCR is a promising approach for early diagnosis of leptospirosis and may also be useful in studying long-term shedding.
We evaluated the use of low-stringency single specific primer PCR (LSSP-PCR) for genetically typing Leptospira directly from urine samples of cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis. Urine samples obtained from 40 cattle with clinical suspicion of leptospirosis were amplified by specific PCR using the following primers: Internal 1/Internal 2 and G1/G2. The internal primers were designed from the gene sequence of the outer membrane lipoprotein Lip32 from Leptospira kirschneri, strain RM52. The PCR products were amplified with these two pairs of primers, which had approximately 497 and 285bp, respectively, and were subsequently used as a template for LSSP-PCR analysis. The genetic signatures from the leptospires which were present in the urine samples allowed us to make a preliminary identification of the leptospires by comparing the LSSP-PCR profiles obtained directly from urine samples with those from reference leptospires. The LSSP-PCR profiles obtained with the Internal 1 primer or with the G1 primer allowed the grouping of the leptospires into serogroups. LSSP-PCR was found to be a useful and sensitive approach capable of identifying leptospires directly from biological samples without the need for prior bacterial isolation. In conclusion, the LSSP-PCR technique may still be helpful in discriminating serogroups of Leptospira from different animal reservoirs, since the early identification of carrier animals and information on the shedding state are crucial to prevent the spread of leptospiral infection to other animals and humans.

Five key practices

Obtain urine cultures only when residents have the indicated clinical signs and symptoms of a UTI.
Obtain and store urine cultures properly.
Prescribe antibiotics only when specified criteria have been met, and reassess once urine culture and susceptibility results have been received.
Do not use dipsticks to diagnose a UTI.
Discontinue routine annual urine screening and screening at admission if residents do not have indicated clinical signs and symptoms of a UTI.

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Updated 8 July 2020